Heart Valve Disease: In this article, we have brought important information about heart valve disease for you. This is especially important for patients who have had heart valve surgery. The first surgical operation of heart valves was done in 1913 under the term heart valve disease. From the symptoms of heart valve disease to its treatment Cardiac Surgeon Dr.Atanu Saha has explained in detail.
Dr. Atanu Saha is currently serving as Consultant at Rabindranath Tagore International Institute of Cardiac Sciences, Kolkata. He says that whoever is a victim of heart valve disease, his heart valves stop working. After all, what are these valves and how do they work, know in detail below…
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There are four types of valves in our heart.
According to Dr. Atanu Saha, there are four types of valves in our heart, which open when the blood goes into the heart and close when the blood goes in the opposite direction, but when these valves are damaged, So they become compressed and hardened. Due to which the valves are not able to open or close when the blood comes and goes. This condition is called Heart Valve Disease.
what are the four valves
There are four valves in a human heart. These are known as tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral and aortic. These valves have tissue flaps that open and close with each heartbeat. The flaps ensure that blood flows in the right direction through the four chambers of the heart and throughout the body. Their main function is to maintain the unidirectional flow of blood with the least amount of resistance.
What happens when the valve goes bad?
Heart valve disease can affect any one or more of the four valves of the heart. When valves are damaged, it can disrupt normal blood circulation through the heart. Heart valves can develop one or both of the following conditions:
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Regurgitation or insufficiency- In this the valve may not close completely.
Stenosis – In this condition the opening of the valve becomes narrow.
1. Resurgence or inadequacy- In this situation sometimes the valves get damaged and fail to close completely. Due to this, the blood leaks in the opposite direction, due to which it does not reach the whole body. This can create pressure in the lungs.
2. Valve Stenosis
In this condition the valves become narrower. So less blood can fill in the ventricle. This limits the amount of blood pumped to the body. Due to which there can be difficulty in breathing.
Symptoms of heart valve disease
- heart palpitations
- Chest pain
- leg swelling
- trouble sleeping
- Shortness of breath
- leg swelling
What is the treatment of heart valve disease
To treat this disease, apart from the symptoms, the doctor will do some tests to find out the damage done to your valves. He may take samples of your blood or listen to the opening and closing of the valves and the sound of blood flowing through the valves. For this the help of X-ray is taken. Also the valves can be detected under (ultrasound). This test creates a picture called an echocardiogram, which can be used by doctors to detect damage and disease.
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In normal condition the valve is repaired
If your valves are normal and they can be cured with medicine, then doctors give some medicines, but in severe condition, doctors suggest valve replacement. If the valve needs to be repaired, surgeons perform an annuloplasty. During this, the surgeon removes and repairs the calcium deposits on the valve.
Option 1 – valve replacement with a prosthetic valve
Replacement is recommended for people whose valves are damaged. In this situation, with the help of operation, an artificial valve is installed in place of the defective valve. An artificial valve can be either a tissue or a mechanical valve. Valve replacement surgery is a great and effective treatment for this disease. Mechanical valves are made of strong, safe, well-tested materials such as titanium. People who have these implants have to take special care of their diet along with blood thinners.
Second option – tissue (bioprosthetic) valve
All tissue valves are made from animal tissue, which is specially treated to help them last longer. The main advantage of tissue valves is that they usually do not require lifelong blood-thinning medications or any dietary restrictions. Also, it is useful for young women of childbearing age.
Prosthetic valves were not available until the 1960s
From 1913 until the 1960s, artificial valves were not available, until which patients suffering from this disease could not be treated, but now new valves are easily replaced when the valve is damaged. It is with the help of these valves that patients have returned to an active lifestyle.
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